In-Text Citations In Vancouver Referencing
In Vancouver referencing, you cite sources via bracketed numbers in the text. Sources are numbered in the order they are first cited in the document:
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada (1).
Here, the bracketed number shows that we’re citing the first source listed in the bibliography. If we were to cite the same source again later in the same document, all we would need to do is cite the same number as on the first citation. Variations on this format include:
- Giving the citation immediately afterwards when an author is named in the text
- Providing a page number in citations when quoting a source
- Citing multiple sources in a single citation by using a dash to indicate consecutive sources in the reference list (e.g. 2–4 = sources 2, 3, and 4) or by adding commas between non-consecutive sources in the reference list (e.g. 1, 4, 9 = sources 1, 4, and 9)
Don’t forget to check your own style guide if you have one, though, as different versions of Vancouver have different rules about citations.
Vancouver Bibliographies And Reference Lists
All versions of Vancouver referencing require you to list sources at the end of your document. This is usually called a ‘Bibliography’ or a ‘Reference List’. The details of how to format a Vancouver bibliography vary. Typically, though, you should list all sources:
- With full publication information
- In the order they are first cited in the text
- With authors’ surnames given first, followed by initials
- With titles of longer works (e.g. books and academic journals) italicised and titles of shorter works (e.g. book chapters and article) in quotation marks.
The format for each bibliography entry will depend on the source type. If we were citing a book, for instance, we would list it in the bibliography as follows:
(1) Young N. Canadian Geography for Beginners. Toronto: RJ Parker Publishing; 2010.
Here, we have the author’s name, the book title, and publication information. For details on other source types in Vancouver referencing, see our blog.
Referencing Styles And Systems
Our expert editors can work with a range of referencing styles, including:
We can work with other referencing styles on request, too. Just let us know which system you’re using when you upload your work, and we’ll tailor our service accordingly. For more information on legal referencing styles, such as OSCOLA and AGLC, see our dedicated legal referencing page.