What Is Academic
In academic writing, authors need to cite their sources. So, if you’re a student or a researcher, you need to show when you’ve used someone else’s words or ideas. This allows you to do a few things, including:
- Demonstrate your understanding of the subject area
- Show that you have done your research
- Back up your arguments with existing theories or studies
- Credit the work of other writers and researchers
- Prevent any accusations of plagiarism
Academic referencing usually involves two things:
- In-text citations (or footnotes) in the main body of your writing
- A reference list or bibliography at the end of your document
How this works will depend on the system you are using. Our expert academic proofreaders can help you ensure that your referencing is always correct.
Our expert editors can work with a range of referencing
- APA Developed by the American Pyschological Associated, APA referencing is an ‘author–date’ style commonly used in the psychological and social sciences and other forms of academic writing.
- MLA MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association and is commonly used by those studying languages or humanities subjects.
- IEEE IEEE is a number–note referencing style developed for use in IEEE journals, but also commonly used in engineering and other technical subject areas.
- OSCOLA OSCOLA is short for Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities. It is the standard referencing style used in UK legal writing and education.
- Turabian Turabian style is a simplified version of Chicago referencing developed for student writing by Kate Turabian in her book A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations.
- AGLC AGLC is the referencing style set out in the Australian Guide to Legal Citation and the most common system used for legal writing in Australia.
- Chicago The Chicago Manual of Style sets out two referencing systems: a footnotes and bibliography style and an author–date version. Both are common in academic writing and publishing.
- MHRA MHRA referencing is a footnote and bibliography citation style developed by the Modern Humanities Research Association. It is commonly used in the humanities, especially in the UK.
- AMA AMA referencing is a number–note citation style originally developed by the American Medical Association and often used in medical writing.
- Oxford ‘Oxford referencing’ is a generic name for footnote and bibliography referencing. Many universities have their own version of this system.
- Vancouver ‘Vancouver style’ is a generic term for number–note referencing, where sources are cited with a number in the text that points to an entry in a reference list.
- Harvard ‘Harvard referencing’ is another term for parenthetical author–date referencing, where you cite sources with the author’s surname and a date of publication and give full source details in a reference list at the end of your document.
We can work with other referencing styles on request, too. Just let us know which system you’re using when you upload your work, and we’ll tailor our service accordingly. For more information on legal referencing styles, such as OSCOLA and AGLC, see our dedicated legal referencing page.
What We Do With References And Citations
When we proofread your document, we will:
- Check that citations and references are formatted correctly
- Ensure that quotations are clearly marked
- Look for missing citations or missing information in citations
- Find and highlight inconsistencies
- Make sure your bibliography or reference list is complete
If we spot an issue with referencing, we will usually leave a comment and suggest a correction rather than make an edit. This is to ensure we follow academic plagiarism guidelines.
institutions and businesses