Vancouver is the most populous city in the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is ethnically diverse, known for its high quality of life, and nicknamed \u201cHollywood North\u201d for its connections to the Canadian film industry. It is also the home of Vancouver referencing. Well, sort of.\r\n\r\nIn this post, we\u2019ll look at the basics of Vancouver referencing. This will include how to cite sources, reference lists and bibliographies, and why it is called \u201cVancouver\u201d referencing in the first place.\r\nWhat Is Vancouver Referencing?\r\nVancouver referencing is so called because of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, who met in Vancouver to agree on a referencing style for all biomedical journals.\r\n\r\nThey decided on an \u201cauthor\u2013number\u201d system. This uses numbered citations to point to entries in a reference list, where the author and text are named.\r\n\r\nHowever, Vancouver is not a \u201csystem\u201d in the strict sense. Instead, it is a reference style with several variations (e.g., style of punctuation and use of italics). As such, if your school or publisher suggests using Vancouver referencing, make sure to check your style guide carefully.\r\nCitations in Vancouver\r\nAs mentioned above, Vancouver uses numbers to point to an entry in the reference list. The exact format for citing a source can vary, but this usually involves parentheses (1), square brackets , or superscript numbers.3 If the author is named in the text, the citation usually comes after their name. If not, the citation goes at the end of the relevant passage. For instance:\r\nAccording to Smith (1), X is Y. However, some studies disagree (2).\r\nEach number refers to a different source, with sources numbered in the order they are first cited. If you then cite the same source again, simply repeat the number you used the first time.\r\nAdvanced Citations\r\nAs well as basic citations, you can cite more than one source at a time by including more than one number. And if you quote a source, you should also include page numbers:\r\nIf X truly is Y (1, 3-5), then \u201cY must also be X\u201d (6: p. 24).\r\nFor example, with the first citation above, the author is citing sources 1, 3, 4, and 5 from their reference list. With the second citation, they are citing page 24 of the sixth source in the list.\r\nThe Reference List\r\nLike with citations, the format of a Vancouver reference list will depend on the version of the system used. However, they all have two things in common:\r\n\r\n \tSources are listed in the order they are first cited in your document.\r\n \tAll references should include enough information for the reader to find the source used.\r\n\r\nA reference for a book, for example, might look like this:\r\n(1) Smith A. X and Y: A Study of Similarity. New York: PI Publications; 2012.\r\nThe number at the start matches the citation in the main text. After that, we have the author\u2019s name, the title of the book, and the publication details. This level of detail will usually suffice.\r\nReference List or Bibliography?\r\nSome versions of Vancouver distinguish between a \u201creference list\u201d and a \u201cbibliography.\u201d Usually, the reference list is only cited sources, while a bibliography may include additional reading.\r\n\r\nThis terminology can vary, though, and which you need will depend on the version of Vancouver used. This, again, makes it wise to check your style guide if you\u2019re unsure how to proceed. But as long as you\u2019re clear and consistent in how you cite sources in your work, you\u2019ll be on the right track! And if you\u2019d \u00a0like someone to check the referencing in your work, let us know.