You might be familiar with the definite article (“the”) and indefinite articles (“a” or “an”), but have you heard of the zero article? This post will explain what the zero article is and when to use it in your writing.
In both cases here, we do not use an article because we’re using the words generically (i.e., to refer to plastic bags and milk in general, not to a specific set of plastic bags or a particular glass of milk).
Were we referring to something specific instead, we would need to use articles as normal (e.g., if we were referring to “the plastic bags that you use for your groceries” or “the milk in the fridge”).
Means of Transport
We do not usually use an article when describing how something travels:
We made the journey on foot.
They will be arriving by plane.
However, you should use the appropriate articles when referring to vehicles otherwise (e.g., someone might “travel by bus,” but we would still say “the bus is waiting” or “a bus passed by half an hour ago”).
Games and Sports
You do not usually need an article before the name of a game or sport:
We play football together.
He always wins at chess.
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This does not apply when we use a game or sport to modify another word, though (e.g., we would still say “the football game” or “a chess piece”).
You would not use “a” or “the” when referring to most meals:
I ate breakfast in bed today.
What shall we have for lunch?
You do need an article if you modify the word in question, though:
I had the best breakfast ever on holiday.
Here, for example, we need the definite article in the second sentence because we’ve also added “best” before “breakfast.”
Academic subjects, such as history or math, do not require an article:
He studies history at college.
She is good at math.
However, we do need an article when these words modify another word (e.g., “a history book”) or when they are modified by something else (e.g., you can “study history,” but you would study “the history of England” or “the history of shoes” if you wanted to specify a particular topic of study).
Institutions and Places
We do not usually need an article before a place (e.g., school, prison or bed) when we are referring to its main purpose:
He studies hard at school.
She is doing hard time in prison.
I will go to bed when I am tired.
In all the examples above, for instance, we’re referring to the noun in term of its purpose (i.e., school is where you study, prison is where you are imprisoned, and bed is where you sleep).
If we were to use the same words but refer to the buildings/objects in themselves, though, we would need to use an article before the noun:
The school had a good reputation.
I work in a prison on the edge of town.
The bed had been left unmade.
The key exception here is “hospital” in American English! In other English dialects, it is common to say “in hospital” to mean “receiving treatment at a hospital.” But in American English, you would usually say “in the hospital” instead:
US English: Harry is in the hospital with a broken leg.
UK English:Harry is in hospital with a broken leg.
Common Time Expressions
We also use the zero article with some common time expressions. As well as days and months (which are proper nouns), this can include:
Seasons (in summer, when winter begins)
Times of day (I woke up at midnight, we will meet at noon)
With “tomorrow,” “today,” and “yesterday” (I’ll do it today)
When using “last” before a time phrase (we went last week)
The key exceptions here are “morning,” “afternoon,” and “evening,” all of which usually require the definite article:
He was here in the morning.
I will do it in the afternoon.
She likes to exercise in the evening.
Noun + Number
It is common to omit articles when a noun is followed by a number. For example, we would typically add an article before both “platform” and “page” when using these words in a sentence:
We waited on the platform.
I marked the page for you.
However, were we to specify a particular platform or page with a number, we would need to use the zero article instead:
We waited on platform six.
I marked page 44 for you.
Expert Grammar Proofreading
As you can see, the zero article can be quite tricky to master!
Unless you are confident about when to use (and when not to use) articles, then, it can pay to have a native English speaker check your writing. Our expert proofreaders, for example, can help you make sure that you always use the right articles in the right places. Why not give it a try today?