OSCOLA \u2013 short for Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities \u2013 is the standard for citing legal authorities in the UK. It also divides authorities into primary sources (case reports and legislation) and secondary sources (pretty much everything else).\nThis second category can seem confusing at first, so check out our guide to find out how to cite secondary sources in OSCOLA referencing.\n\nWhat Are Secondary Sources?\nSecondary sources in OSCOLA include pretty much anything that isn\u2019t a legal document but that you want to cite in your work, such as:\n\n\n \tBooks\n \tEdited collections\n \tJournal articles\n \tNewspaper or magazine articles\n \tOfficial documents\n \tWebsites\n\nSo unless the document you\u2019re citing is a case report, a statute or a statutory instrument, there\u2019s a good chance it will be a secondary source. And now we've established that, let's look at how to cite secondary sources.\n\nGeneral Principles\nLike primary sources, you should cite secondary sources in footnotes, indicated via superscript numbers (e.g., 1, 2, 3) in the main text. The exact information required in a footnote will depend on the source type, but there are some pointers worth keeping in mind for all sources:\n\n\n \tIn citations, you will usually provide the author\u2019s first name (or initial) and surname, a source title and relevant publication information.\n \tIf a source has more than three authors, name the first person listed followed by \u201cand others\u201d to show that some authors have been left out.\n \tSources without a named author should be listed with the organization that claims editorial responsibility as the author.\n \tTitles of books (and all publications with an ISBN) should be italicized.\n \tPublications available electronically should be cited with the relevant URL.\n\nCiting a Book in OSCOLA Referencing\nTo demonstrate how citing secondary sources works in OSCOLA referencing, we\u2019ll focus on how to cite a book.\nThe standard format for a book in OSCOLA is as follows:\nAuthor, | Title | (Edition, | Publisher | Year) | Pinpoint\nThe pinpoint here is the specific page or paragraph number you\u2019re citing. And you only need to include the edition if the source is not a first edition. In a footnote, then, we would cite a book like this:\n1. Bill O\u2019Rights, Constitutional Protection (2nd edn, Hodder & Fouslon 1998) 245.\nYou can indicate consecutive citations of the same source using \u201cibid.,\u201d along with a new page number if you are citing a different part of the source. For non-consecutive citations of a source, meanwhile, you can give the author\u2019s surname and cross-reference it with the first note.\n\nSecondary Sources in an OSCOLA Bibliography\nAn OSCOLA bibliography should contain both:\n\n\n \tA table of authorities for primary sources\n \tA separate bibliography for secondary sources\n\nWithin this bibliography, you should list sources alphabetically by author surname with all relevant publication information. As with footnotes, the exact information required will depend on the source type. Usually, though, it will be similar to the first footnote, only with:\n\n\n \tThe author's surname given first\n \tInitials in place of a first name\n \tNo period\n\nFor example, we would list the source cited above as follows:\nO\u2019Rights, B, Constitutional Protection (2nd edn, Hodder & Fouslon 1998)\nAnd if you need any help making sure you\u2019ve correctly cited secondary sources, don\u2019t forget to submit your document for proofreading.