Letters, emails, and unpublished interviews are all forms of personal communication you might wish to cite in an essay (e.g., if you conducted interviews as part of a study). But how do you cite a letter, email, or interview in Harvard referencing? Follow the tips below to find out.\r\nCiting Personal Communications in Harvard Referencing\r\nIn-text citations in Harvard referencing consist of a name and a year. For a personal communication, this could be the sender of a message and the year it was sent, or an interviewee and the year of the interview. For example:\r\nMalcolm Turnbull (2018) confirmed that the policy was never implemented.\r\nThe policy was never implemented (Turnbull, 2018).\r\nNotice we do not mention the source type \u2013 e.g., a telephone call or letter \u2013 in the citation. Instead, we will give this information in the reference list.\r\nEmails and Letters in a Harvard Reference List\r\nThe format of a personal communication in a Harvard reference list depends on the type of communication. For emails and letters, the full reference is:\r\nSurname of Sender, Initial of Sender. (Year) Letter\/Email to Recipient Name, date of email\/letter.\r\nIn practice, this would look something like this:\r\nTurnbull, M. (2018) Email to John Smith, April 20.\r\nTurnbull, M. (2018) Letter to John Smith, April 20.\r\nInterviews and Voice Calls in a Harvard Reference List\r\nEntries for interviews and voice calls in a reference list follow a similar format. The only difference is the type of communication. For example:\r\nTurnbull, M. (2018) Unpublished interview conducted by John Smith, April 20.\r\nTurnbull, M. (2018) Telephone conversation with John Smith, April 20.\r\nYou can adapt this format for any kind of communication. For example:\r\nTurnbull, M. (2018) Skype conversation with John Smith, April 20.\r\nHarvard Referencing Proofreading Services\r\nHarvard referencing is a style rather than a system, so it can vary between universities. The version we use for this blog is from the Open University [PDF], but remember to check whether your institution has its own guide.\r\nAnd if you need any more help with your academic writing, why not ask Proofed\u2019s editing experts to check your referencing?