If you\u2019re studying engineering, you will almost certainly need to use IEEE referencing at some point. But what exactly is this? And how do you use it in your own writing? Read on, and we\u2019ll run you through all the basics of IEEE referencing and citations.\n1. What Is IEEE Referencing?\nAs the name suggests, IEEE referencing is the referencing system recommended by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is used in all of the IEEE\u2019s own journals, but many colleges and schools that focus on engineering or computing subjects also use it.\n\nIf you have an interest in these subjects, you may therefore need to understand IEEE referencing.\n2. Basic IEEE Citations\nIEEE citations involve giving a number in square brackets within the text of your document, typically at the end of the sentence, when you want to cite a source. For example:\nThe chance of killer robots conquering humanity is very high .\nThese numbered citations point to an entry in a reference list at the end of your document, where you should provide full source information.\n\nSources are numbered in the order they are cited in your work, so the example above is a citation for the first source in the reference list. If you need to cite the same source more than once, moreover, simply use the same number as on the first citation.\n3. Quoting Sources\nTo quote a source in IEEE referencing, place the quoted text within quote marks and make sure to give a page number in the citation as well as a source number. For instance:\nThe robots are said to \u201charbor a terrible thirst for vengeance\u201d [2, p. 86].\nHere, the citation shows that we\u2019re quoting page 86 of the second source in the reference list.\n4. Citations and Author Names\nWhen the author of a source is named in the text, give the citation immediately afterwards:\nDr. Banks  believes that the robots will inevitably win.\nIEEE is also unusual in that you can use a citation in place of an author\u2019s name. For example, here we use the citation number as if it were a pronoun:\nAccording to , the robots will inevitably win.\n\n5. IEEE Reference Lists\nFinally, every source in your document must also appear in the reference list. This is where you give full publication information for everything you have cited. The rules here are as follows:\n\n \tSources should be listed in the order they are first cited in your writing\n \tTitles of books and journals should be italicized and use title case capitalization (i.e., with the first letters of all major words, as well as the first word in titles and subtitles, capitalized)\n \tTitles of articles, book chapters, and other shorter documents should be placed in quotation marks and use sentence case capitalization (i.e., only capitalizing the first letter of the first words of title and subtitles, plus any proper nouns that would usually take a capital letter)\n \tUse a hanging indent (roughly a quarter inch) for each line after the first\n\nThe exact format for an entry in an IEEE reference list depends on the source type. However, we\u2019ll include the basic format for a book below to give you a sense of what an entry should look like:\n[#] INITIAL(S) Surname, Title. Place of publication: Publisher, year.\nIn practice, then, you would list a book like this:\n K. Capek, Why Killer Robots Will Consume Us All: An Optimistic Look at Future Engineering Challenges. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2002.